Steve Madden Hilda Black Low 26464 Top Women Shoes 10 Size Madden 10 M AL4401 4e9e6fe -

Steve Madden Hilda Black Low 26464 Top Women Shoes 10 Size Madden 10 M AL4401 4e9e6fe

Item specifics

Condition: Pre-owned :
An item that has been used or worn previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of any imperfections.See all condition definitions- opens in a new window or tab
Seller Notes: These shoes are used. They are found in a good condition. They present some scratches and show evidence of being worn. Every detail and scratch have been tried to be shown in the photographs. These shoes have some light surface marks, creases and minor dirt/wear on the insides or bottom soles. Please check every picture very carefully before making a purchase. Please feel free to ask if you have any questions, concerns, or doubts about the article. Please Note: Colors and Shade may vary slightly due to flash and no flash or lighting. We try to our best to provide pictures with and without flash. Thank you!”. These shoes have some surface scratches, creases, marks & dirt/wear on insides and bottom soles. All other defects will be closely photographed.
Model: Hilda Material: Fabric Suede
Country/Region of Manufacture: China Width: Medium (B, M)
Style: Low Top Color: Pink
US Shoe Size (Women's): 10 Brand: Steve Madden
Heel Height: Med (1 3/4 in. to 2 3/4 in.) UPC: Does not apply
Mars likely to have enough oxygen to support life: Study

PARIS - Salty water just below the surface of Mars could hold enough oxygen to support the kind of microbial life that emerged and flourished on Earth billions of years ago, researchers reported Monday (Oct 22).

In some locations, the amount of oxygen available could even keep alive a primitive, multicellular animal such as a sponge, they reported in the journal Nature Geosciences.

"We discovered that brines" - water with high concentrations of salt - "on Mars can contain enough oxygen for microbes to breathe," said lead author Vlada Stamenkovic, a theoretical physicist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California.

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"This fully revolutionises our understanding of the potential for life on Mars, today and in the past," he told AFP.

Up to now, it had been assumed that the trace amounts of oxygen on Mars were insufficient to sustain even microbial life.

"We never thought that oxygen could play a role for life on Mars due to its rarity in the atmosphere, about 0.14 per cent," Stamenkovic said.

By comparison, the life-giving gas makes up 21 per cent of the air we breathe.

On Earth, aerobic - that is, oxygen breathing - life forms evolved together with photosynthesis, which converts CO2 into O2. The gas played a critical role in the emergence of complex life, notable after the so-called Great Oxygenation Event some 2.35 billion years ago.

But our planet also harbours microbes - at the bottom of the ocean, in boiling hot springs - that subsist in environments deprived of oxygen.

"That's why - whenever we thought of life on Mars - we studied the potential for anaerobic life," Stamenkovic.


The new study began with the discovery by Nasa's Curiosity Mars rover of manganese oxides, which are chemical compounds that can only be produced with a lot of oxygen.

Curiosity, along with Mars orbiters, also established the presence of brine deposits, with notable variations in the elements they contained.

A high salt content allows for water to remain liquid - a necessary condition for oxygen to be dissolved - at much lower temperatures, making brines a happy place for microbes.

Depending on the region, season and time of day, temperatures on the Red Planet can vary between minus 195 and 20 deg C.

The researchers devised a first model to describe how oxygen dissolves in salty water at temperatures below freezing.

A second model estimated climate changes on Mars over the last 20 million years, and over the next 10 million years.

Taken together, the calculations showed which regions on the Red Planet are most likely to produce brine-based oxygen, data that could help determine the placement of future probes.

"Oxygen concentrations (on Mars) are orders of magnitude" - several hundred times - "greater than needed by aerobic, or oxygen-breathing - microbes," the study concluded.

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"Our results do not imply that there is life on Mars," Stamenkovic cautioned. "But they show that the Martian habitability is affected by the potential of dissolved oxygen."

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Steve Madden Hilda Black Low 26464 Top Women Shoes 10 Size Madden 10 M AL4401 4e9e6fe -

Steve Madden Hilda Black Low 26464 Top Women Shoes 10 Size Madden 10 M AL4401 4e9e6fe
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